Endodontic



Endodontics is a specialized branch of dentistry that deals with the complex structures found inside the teeth. The Greek word “Endodontics” literally means “inside the tooth,” and relates to the tooth pulp, tissues, nerves and arterioles. Endodontists receive additional dental training after completing dental school to enable them to perform both complex and simple procedures, including root canal therapy.
Historically, a tooth with a diseased nerve would be removed immediately, but endodontists are now able to save the natural tooth in most cases. Generally, extracting the inner tooth structures, then sealing the resulting gap with a crown restores health and functionality to damaged teeth.

Signs and symptoms of endodontic problems:
• Inflammation and tenderness in the gums.
• Teeth that are sensitive to hot and cold foods.
• Tenderness when chewing and biting.
• Tooth discoloration.
• Unexplained pain in the nearby lymph nodes.
Reasons for endodontic treatment
Endodontic treatment (or root canal therapy) is performed to save the natural tooth. In spite of the many advanced restorations available, most dentists agree that there is no substitute for healthy, natural teeth.
Here are some of the main causes of inner tooth damage:
Bacterial infections – Oral bacteria is the most common cause of endodontic problems. Bacteria invade the tooth pulp through tiny fissures in the teeth caused by tooth decay or injury. The resulting inflammation and bacterial infection jeopardize the affected tooth and may cause an abscess to form.
Fractures and chips – When a large part of the surface or crown of the tooth has become completely detached, root canal therapy may be required. The removal of the crown portion leaves the pulp exposed, which can be debilitating painful and problematic.
Injuries – Injuries to the teeth can be caused by a direct or indirect blow to the mouth area. Some injuries cause a tooth to become luxated, or dislodged from its socket. Root canal therapy is often needed after the endodontist has successfully stabilized the injured tooth.
Removals – If a tooth has been knocked clean out of the socket, it is important to rinse it and place it back into the socket as quickly as possible. If this is impossible, place the tooth in special dental solution (available at pharmacies) or in milk. These steps will keep the inner mechanisms of the tooth moist and alive while emergency dental treatment is sought. The tooth will be affixed in its socket using a special splint, and the endodontist will then perform root canal therapy to save the tooth.
Root Canal Therapy 
Root canal therapy is needed when the nerve of a tooth is affected by decay or infection.  In order to save the tooth, the pulp (the living tissue inside the tooth), nerves, bacteria, and any decay are removed and the resulting space is filled with special, medicated, dental materials, which restore the tooth to its full function.
Having a root canal done on a tooth is the treatment of choice to save a tooth that otherwise would die and have to be removed.  Many patients believe that removing a tooth that has problems is the solution, but what is not realized is that extracting (pulling) a tooth will ultimately be more costly and cause significant problems for adjacent teeth.
Root canal treatment is highly successful and usually lasts a lifetime, although on occasion, a tooth will have to be retreated due to new infections.
Signs and symptoms for possible root canal therapy:
• An abscess (or pimple) on the gums.
• Sensitivity to hot and cold.
• Severe toothache pain.
• Sometimes no symptoms are present.
• Swelling and/or tenderness.
Reasons for root canal therapy:
• Decay has reached the tooth pulp (the living tissue inside the tooth).
• Infection or abscess have developed inside the tooth or at the root tip.
• Injury or trauma to the tooth.
What does an endodontic procedure invlove?
Root canal therapy usually takes between one and three visits to complete. Complete X-rays of the teeth will be taken and examined before the treatment begins.
Initially, a local anesthetic will be administered .An opening will be created in the surface of the tooth, and the pulp will be completely removed using small handheld instruments.
The space will now be shaped, cleaned and filled with gutta-percha. Gutta-percha is a biocompatible material that is somewhat similar to rubber. Cement will be applied on top to ensure that the root canals are completely sealed off. 
At the next appointment, usually a week later, the roots and the inside cavity of the tooth will be filled and sealed with special dental materials.  A filling will be placed to cover the opening on top of the tooth.  In addition, all teeth that have root canal treatment should have a crown (cap) placed.  This will protect the tooth and prevent it from breaking, and restore it to its full function.
After treatment, your tooth may still be sensitive, but this will subside as the inflammation diminishes and the tooth has healed.
You will be given care instructions after each appointment.  Good oral hygiene practices and regular dental visits will aid in the life of your root canal treatment.

Root Canal Retreatment 

In rare cases, root canal therapy fails to work as expected. The treated tooth might not heal properly or a patient might experience post-surgical complications that jeopardize the tooth. Root canal retreatment involves the removal of the previous crown and packing material, the cleansing of the root canals, and the re-packing and re-crowning of the tooth. In short, root canal retreatment is almost identical to the original procedure, aside from the structural removal. The success rate for a root canal retreatment runs at around 75%.
Root canal treatments and retreatments are a better alternative than extraction for most individuals. If a tooth has good bone support, a solid surface and healthy gums beneath it, it stands a good chance of being saved. Opting for root canal retreatment can be far less expensive than the alternatives. Dental implants, extensive bridgework and the creation of aesthetically pleasing prosthetic teeth cost far more than working with the natural tooth. They also require maintenance and feel less natural than a “real” tooth.
Why is root canal retreatment required?
Though the prospect of more endodontic surgery might not be pleasant, root canal retreatment is fairly simple. In general, the whole treatment can be completed in 1-3 visits.

There are a number of reasons why root canal therapy unexpectedly fails, including:
• Cracked crown leaking filling material.
• Curved or narrow canals not treated during the original procedure.
• Delay in the placement of restorative devices following the procedure.
• New decay to the tooth.
• New fracture in the treated tooth.
• Saliva entering the restorative structure.
• Undetected complex canal structures.
What does root canal retreatment involve?
On the day of the retreatment procedure a local anesthetic will be administered, unless another type of anesthetic has been selected. The amount the dentist can do within a single appointment will much depend on the amount of inflammation present, and the complexity of the treatment.
The first step in a root canal retreatment is to gain access to the inner tooth. If a crown and post have been placed, these will be removed.
Next, filling material and obstructions that block the root canals will be removed. This removal is conducted using an ultrasonic handpiece. The advantage of using this tool is that any unwanted material is vibrated loose. Tiny instruments will then be used to clean and reshape the root canals. X-rays may be taken to ensure that the roots are thoroughly clean. If this part of the treatment proves to be complex, medicated packing material will be applied, and the rest of the cleansing procedure will be done at the next visit.
When the dentist is confident that the root canals are completely clean, gutta-percha is used to pack the space. This rubbery material seals the canals to prevent bacterial invasion. Finally, a temporary crown or filling is applied to tooth. At a later date, the color-matched permanent crown will be placed.
If you have any questions or concerns about root canal retreatment, please ask your dentist.


Root Amputation 


Root amputation is a specialized dental procedure, whereby one root is removed from a multi-root tooth. The tooth is then stabilized and rendered fully functional with a crown or filling. The multi-root teeth best suited to the root amputation procedure are the molars at the back of the mouth. These large flat teeth have either two or three roots depending on whether they are situated on the upper or lower jaw.
The general purpose of root amputation is to save an injured or diseased tooth from extraction. Most dentists agree that there is no better alternative than retaining a healthy natural tooth, and the root amputation procedure makes this possible. Dental implants, extensive bridgework and custom-made tooth replacements can be expensive and time-consuming. Generally, root amputation and the necessary crown work are less expensive and can be completed in 1-3 short visits.
When is root amputation necessary?
It is important to note that root amputation can only be performed on healthy tooth. tooth, Extraction will be performed if the tooth is diseased, badly fractured or otherwise injured. Suitable teeth for root amputation have a healthy tooth surface, strong bone support and healthy underlying gums.
There are several problems that may lead to root amputation including:
• Broken, fractured or injured teeth and roots.
• Embedded bacteria within the structure of the root.
• Severe bone loss in a concentrated area due to periodontitis.
• Tooth decay in a concentrated area of the tooth.
What does root amputation involve?
Prior to root amputation, it is necessary to perform root canal treatment. The amputation itself involves cutting deep into the tooth where blood vessels and nerves are located. For this reason, the pulp of the tooth including these vessels and nerves needs to be removed before resectioning the roots. The root canal and amputation treatments will be performed under local anesthetic.
During the root amputation procedure, a small incision will be created in the gum to fully expose the roots of the affected tooth. The root will be sectioned off from the rest of the tooth and then removed. To kill any remaining bacteria, the whole area will be cleansed with saline solution, and then sutures (stitches) will be applied to seal the incision.
Finally, a temporary crown or filling will be placed to secure the tooth. Depending on the specific situation, painkillers, antibiotics and a medicated anti-microbial mouthwash may be prescribed. In 7-10 days, the stitches will be removed and the gum will have healed. Arrangements can now be made to place the permanent crown or filling.
If you have any questions or concerns about root amputation, please ask your dentist.
   
 
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